Vitamins and micronutrients Reference sheet


Vitamin A

The main fat soluble retinoid, vitamin A, is an antioxidant that helps with vision, maintains healthy hair & skin, and can help with psoriasis. It is also a key vitamin in maintaining our immune system.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin and a hormone that helps with the bodies calcium and phosphate levels. Not all vitamin D is obtained from the food supply. Vitamin D3 requires a conversion performed in both the liver and kidney from sun exposure and ultraviolet light. Its functions include, bone and tissue health, modulation of cell growth, tooth development, and immune system maintenance. Together with calcium, vitamin D helps protect against osteoporosis.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that helps with our immune system, protects eyesight, prevents cell damage, and can help protect against the development of cardiovascular disease. People with gastric disorders such as Crohns or Cystic Fibrosis may have a deficiency in vitamin E because it is absorbed in the small intestine. 


Arginine is an amino acid that aids in weight loss and is important for muscle metabolism. It helps with healing wounds and cell division. It also helps detoxify the liver by neutralizing ammonia. Arginine helps hormones like insulin, the pituitary hormone vasopressin which helps with blood pressure, and aids in the release of growth hormones.


Vitamin C is an antioxidant that can recharge other antioxidants to keep them potent. Because vitamin C is water soluble, it can easily scavenge free radicals in the body's fluids. Vitamin C helps prevent artery wall damage and is required for many metabolic functions in the body including tissue growth and repair, adrenal gland function, and production of anti stress hormones, just to name a few. Vitamin C aids in the metabolizing of folic acid, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.  Humans cannot manufacture vitamin C on their own, it must be obtained through diet or supplements. Our bodies do not absorb vitamin C well through the digestive system and intravenous vitamin C is the only way to achieve higher plasma levels needed to detoxify the free radicals.


Our B-Complex is composed of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and panothenic acid. The B-Complex vitamins are coenzymes that help enzymes to get where they need to go. They are energy production vitamins and as we age vitamin B is not absorbed as easily. Vitamin B helps maintain the health of nerves, skin, eyesight, hair, liver, as well as healthy muscle tone, the GI track, and proper brain function.

B1- Thiamin

Essential cofactor for 5 enzymes involved in sugar, amino acid and lipid metabolism. Plays a critical role in energy metabolism, and therefore, in growth and development and function of cells.


Essential component for 2 major co-enzymes FMN and FAD which have major roles in energy production, cellular function, growth, development and the metabolism of fat, drugs, and steroids. FAD is needed for the body to synthesize other B-vitamins.

At risk Vegetarian Athletes, Pregnant ladies, Vegans, Lactose intolerant.

Can help to reduce migraine attacks.


Active forms a NAD and NADP+ both function as numerous dehydrogenases. Can be derived from tryptophan but is inefficient.

Medication Isoniazid leads to deficiency. Skin flushing side effect. Can increase Blood sugar depletes glycogen from the liver

B5 Pantothenic Acid

Plays role in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy. Critical is the manufacture of red blood cells, plays role in both sex and stress-related hormones produced by the adrenal glands. Maintains a healthy GI tract. Assists in the usage of other vitamins, especially riboflavin, Anti-stress vitamin, Plays role in Cholesterol synthesis. Increase in insulin sensitivity and healing of diabetic foot ulcers.

B6 Pyridoxine

Functions - Co-factor in all of the enzymes that carry out transamination reactions required for the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids. Is considered a pharmaceutical as it is the active ingredient for drug in prevention of diabetic neuropathy. Synthesis of Dopamine, Serotonin, Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and GABA, Heme, Methionine and systein metabolism. Conversion of tryptophan to niacin, and Glycogen homeostasis.

B12 methyl cobalamin

ADMINISTERED BOTH INTRAVENOUS PER CERTAIN INFUSIONS AND AS INTRAMUSCULAR BOOSTER SHOT- Functions- Important vitamin in maintaining healthy nerve cells, the production of healthy DNA and RNA, which when combined with B9 helps the body produce SAMe which is why B12 shot are often associated with increased energy levels and enhanced mood.


Is the most abundant mineral in the body, and is required for vascular contraction and vasodilation, muscle function and nerve transmission, intracellular signaling, and hormonal secretion. Calcium is an essential micronutrient need for these critical metabolic functions. Needed for bone health.


Helps in moving blood sugar into the cells, metabolizing fats into carbohydrates, and metabolizing protein into energy.


Essential trace mineral found in every cell of the body, plays role in maintaining Nerve Cells, Immune system and red blood cell production.


Is concentrated in the muscles when they are working, prevents complications of diabetes, such as nerve damage, eye disorders(cataracts) and kidney problems. It also appears to interfere with certain chemicals that may play a role in the aging process.


Found in every cell of the body, plays a critical role in the production of energy, transports long chain fatty acids into the cell mitochondria to be oxidized(burned) for energy.

Helps memory in both young and old adults. Increases walking distance in patient with claudication in studies. Studies show decrease in nerve pain in both type I & II.


Boosts muscle energy and athletic performance. Treat chronic fatigue, and coronary arterial disease.


Essential amino acid helps body to metabolize fat and absorb calcium. Functions to helps restore connective tissue including the skin. Most needed by Athletes and Vegans.


  • Master Anti-Oxidant in each cell

  • Master Anti-inflammatory in each cell

  • Master Detoxifier inside each cell

  • Primary detoxifier of heavy metals

  • Chelator

  • Transforms hemoglobin into its reduced form so it can accept oxygen and carry it into the cell

This tripeptide composed of glutamic acid, glycine, and cysteine. Is found in every cell in the human body. The active form “GSH” is a substrate for enzymes maintaining proper oxidation-reduction potential inside cells. Performs stage II detoxification in the liver, lowering level of fat causing hormones and inflammation causing prostaglandins. Regulates the cell cycle. DNA and protein synthesis and proteolysis, and gene expression. Protects the thyroid cells from self-generated hydrogen peroxide.

  • Major protector of the Mitochondrial DNA (power house of the cell)

  • Major protector of the Nucleus and DNA of the cell

  • Major protector of immune cell and immune system

  • Cardiovascular system enhancer

  • On antioxidant that can recycle itself

  • First line of protection against environmental chemicals and toxins

  • Glutathione levels decrease every year, starting at the age of 30 years.

Magnesium Chloride

Abundant Cation in the body, has inter-dependent effect on the bodies ability to increase Calcium levels. Has the ability to relax the smooth muscle of the diaphragm thwarting asthma exacerbations. Often deficient in population suffering from migraines.

Manganese Chloride

 Functions contributes to healthy bone structures, co-enzymes that help with the absorbsion of calcium, proper functioning of thyroid and sex hormone production. Blood sugar levels, and metabolism of fats and sugars. Powerful anti-oxidant used by the body to neutralize free radicals. Import for normal brain and nervous system functioning.


 Functions in the body as a detoxifying agent by binding to toxins in the liver, the amino acid is used in hospitals for treating Tylenol poisoning and other types of poison ingestion. It has the ability to treat and manage heart, lung, kidney, seizure, disease and prevent alcoholic liver damage.


 Is a trace element nutritionally essential to humans, Constituent of more than 2 dozen Selenoprotiens that play critical roles in reproduction, thyroid hormone metabolism, DNA synthesis, and protection from oxidative damage.


Most abundant Sulphur containing amino-acid, Functions- Bile salt formation and fat absorbsion, maintains homeostasis of intracellular Sodium and Calcium, and neurotransmitter balance. Helps to decrease depression and fatigue. Protects visual function in diabetics. Low levels often found in vegans.

Zinc Chloride

Second most abundant trace mineral in the body, co-factor in over 300 different enzymes, has a beneficial interaction with insulin. Plays role in promoting wound healing, DNA synthesis, hearing and taste.


A hypotonic liquid used as medium to transport and deliver vitamins and micronutrients into the bloodstream.


An isotonic solution of salt and water, used to hydrate and used as medium to transport and deliver vitamins and micronutrients into the bloodstream.


(FOR HANGOVER DRIP or other physician ordered indications)


(NSAID) GIVEN INTRAVENOUSLY OVER 1MINUTE. Anti-inflammatory pain reliever given Intravenously which inhibits the bodily synthesis of the prostaglandins, which leads to decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxane’s from arachidonic acid


GIVEN INTRAVENOUS PUSH OVER 1 MINUTE- prevents nausea and vomiting, Ondansetron is in a class of medications called serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural substance that may cause nausea and vomiting.

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